Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil – Know What Are They



Ksenia Sobchak – About the Author



Ksenia Sobchak enjoys blogging on fashion, style, lifestyle, love and CBD areas. Prior to becoming a blogger, Ksenia worked for a renowned fashion brand. Ksenia is a contributing author to leading fashion, lifestyle and CBD magazines and blogs. You can bump into Ksenia at her favourite cafe in South Kensington where she has written most blogs. When she is not blogging, Ksenia enjoys shopping (particularly at Harrods!), exploring the hidden gems of London, photography, jogging, yoga, fashion (she is starting up her very own swimwear brand very soon!) and traveling. Ksenia is a staunch advocate of CBD and its benefits to people. Ksenia is also on the panel of CBD reviewers at CBD Life Mag and Chill Hempire. Her favourite form of CBD are CBD gummies and CBD tinctures. Ksenia is a regular contributor at leading fashion, lifestyle as well as CBD magazines and blogs.



Interesting Facts About Ksenia Sobchak



Favourite Drink: Rose flavoured bubble tea



Favourite Movie: Trainspotting (the first one)



Interesting fact: I am a part time fashion and swimwear model



Where are we likely to find you on a Friday night: Probably enjoying a peach flavoured shisha at Beauchamp place in Knightsbridge



Get to Know Your CBD Oils – Where to Buy, The Pros & Cons and Much More



Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil - Know What Are They

The first thing you must do is learn the label to examine the components. This will provide you with a greater thought of the standard and purity of your CBD oil and let you know if something is being mixed into your oil that you need to avoid. These steps should become second nature to you as they will help shield your self as a CBD shopper. While these terms are generally used interchangeably by manufacturers, they don’t all the time have the same which means. To ensure that a CBD product has been thoroughly examined for potency, safety, and potential toxins, confirm it’s been tested by a third-party laboratory. Often, yow will discover individual batch take a look at results on the CBD company’s website.

Lotions and creams for the face and pores and skin to help hold it moisturized with out clogging your pores and including in these plentiful nutrients, fatty acids, and antioxidants. Hemp shampoos and different hair care products infused with hemp oil are available to advertise progress. Meanwhile, hemp seed oil comes from the seeds of the Cannabis sativa plant. The seeds don’t include CBD, but they still have a rich profile of vitamins, fatty acids, and useful bioactive compounds that may even have health advantages. First, you will need to note that there’s a lot of confusion around the names of those products. However, some individuals can also refer to hemp seed oil as hemp oil.

Best Way to Take CBD Oil for Beginners – Know How to Choose


There is a slight likelihood that a small amount of THC could also be present, however with it being a banned substance, all manufacturers take away it completely from their hemp oil products. Even though they’re alike in many ways, there are several variations between CBD and hemp oil. As a buyer, it can be simple to be confused by product labeling like “marijuana oil” or “cannabis oil” since numerous companies use the phrases interchangeably. Let’s discover the variations between CBD oil and hemp oil, so you’ll know tips on how to tell the difference between the 2. Hemp oil is produced by cold-pressing the seeds of the hemp plant. Compared to CBD, hemp oil possesses higher dietary values because it has 25 instances more omega fatty acids than olive oil, and it would make your heart more healthy.
Hemp oil would be thought-about a full-spectrum oil—it incorporates all the compounds found within the plant—and may be greater or lower in CBD, depending on the source of the product. Additionally, hemp oil, in its seed oil form, is used extensively in the beauty trade. It’s a key ingredient in products such as shampoos, conditioners, lotions, soap as its fatty acid content material helps to guard our pores and skin and protect moisture. CBD oil is principally used within the holistic or various wellness space to help steadiness the physique’s inner techniques, whereas hemp oil is especially utilized in meals and skincare merchandise. Hemp oil however, now known as hemp seed oil, is made solely from hemp seeds and is created by a process calledcold urgent.

Because of this a lot of the dietary content material is stripped away. Anxiety decreasing – The commonest purpose people self-medicate with CBD in the UK is for reduction of stress, anxiety and melancholy. Good For Overall Health – Hemp oil is taken into account a superfood; containing an array of essential vitamins and minerals as well as being excessive in protein. Strengthens Nails & Hair – Being excessive in Omega-3 and Omega-6, recognized to boost the production of keratin which leads to stronger nails and hair.

How Does CBD Helps Seizure Patients?


It has great moisturizing advantages for the pores and skin and protects it from harsh environmental stressors. When taken orally, the hemp oil helps the digestive system and its fatty acids positively affect the cholesterol and help enhance the physique’s metabolism. Hemp and marijuana are seen as “plant cousins,” however the THC in marijuana is much online store higher. Hemp oil has very low ranges of CBD, usually less than 25 elements per million, and cannabis oil can have as much as 15% CBD. Since these vegetation are related, some sellers try to market hemp oil as having the same medicinal properties as hashish oil.

The only FDA-accredited form of CBD is used for treating a rare form of epilepsy so no requirements have been set in terms of dosage and secure measurements. However, though hemp oil and CBD oil each appear to have positive results on the physique, they work together with it in a different way. The human body naturally produces its personal cannabinoids by way of a community referred to as the endocannabinoid system. As cannabinoids are ingested, they work to support this community to help stability inner processes and methods. The hashish plant produces lots of of various cannabinoids and CBD, along with THC, is the most common. However, most CBD oil is extracted from hemp crops which were specifically grown to comprise a better percentage of CBD than different cannabinoids.

CBD Oil and Its Few Important Information for Beginners


With all of these thrilling developments coming to the fore, it’s protected to say 2021 might be one of the hashish industry’s most transformative years thus far. These discoveries usually are not solely attracting huge consideration from the hashish industry, however from the pharmaceutical industry as well. Mexico is one other market that’s piquing the curiosity of traders and hashish companies the world over. That’s because it could soon be the third nation on the earth to legalize recreational cannabis by court docket order. The European hashish market has been on traders’ radar for several years, and with good reason—it is among the largest hashish markets in the world. States the place hashish is authorized are actually paving the best way for cannabis gross sales, with California anticipated to pull in over $6 billion by 2021 alone. If federal legalization involves fruition over the next several years, the already booming U.S. market might see further progress.

Describe the primary options of your brand or merchandise using a couple of traces of textual content along with pictures or icons. The products sold on this site and these statements herein haven’t been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not meant to diagnose, deal with, cure, or forestall any disease.

Do You Want to Visit A Head Shop?


With the CBD craze in full swing, there’s nonetheless plenty of confusion going round. So what exactly is CBD oil, and is it the same thing as “hemp oil“?

In numerous studies, researchers noted how CBD has serotonergic results—where it’s capable of provoke the release of serotonin in the body and infuse users with feelings of well-being. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter and a natural temper stabilizer our physique needs to ease anxiousness signs. Once you ingest CBD oil sublingually or add it to your meals, it enters the bloodstream and begins its work on the endocannabinoid system . The latter is a biological system that manages important bodily functions, together with temperature, mood, appetite, sleep, hormones, the reproductive system, ache, and extra. The ECS makes use of its receptors to address modifications within the mind and physique to maintain the body in a continuous state of stability—also known as homeostasis. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Dave has at all times had a passion for helping folks stop smoking. As soon as he realized about vaping, he instantly turned obsessive about it and helped many individuals quit smoking.
These dissimilarities are in numerous classes, similar to compositions, manufacturing methods, rising conditions, worth, and legality. Let this submit be your guide to know these variations for you to correctly differentiate CBD-infused products from objects with hemp. Conversely, industrial hemp oil is now not a Schedule I controlled drug following the 2018 farm bill. Although CBD oil and hemp oil each come from Cannabis sativa vegetation, these chemical compounds have a tendency to come from completely different plant variants. If you want to perceive the distinction between CBD and hemp oil, you have to perceive what both have normally. As both are extracted from hemp plant they might have hemp leaf widespread. One of the easy ways to seek out whether or not it’s hemp oil or CBD oil is taking a look at components list on the packing.

Top 25 Best CBD Vape Oil and E-Liquid Brands


It’s advisable to always spend time perusing the ingredient lists, as many hemp seed oils are misleadingly marketed to appear to be they are CBD products. There are additionally some essential distinctions in the way CBD oil and hemp seed oil are processed. The latter is usually made by way of chilly-urgent hemp seeds to create a darkish, thick oil that’s highly concentrated and nutrient-wealthy. With their low THC content material, hemp oil and CBD oil are safer to buy and travel with when compared to cannabinoids like delta-9-THC, which contains intoxicating psychoactive effects. Furthermore, their potential advantages make them alluring instruments to enrich a healthy life-style. The rise of the hashish business has turned its cannabinoids into family names.

Hemp is of course rich in CBD so, since CBD oil is produced using the whole plant, it naturally contains very excessive levels of CBD. It may contain different naturally occurring organic compounds, generally known as phytocannabinoids and terpenes.

Many use it as face oil, as it has lots of the similar skincare advantages as CBD oil for a fraction of the price. That’s why marketers incessantly try to promote hemp seed oil as CBD oil, using comparable packaging for each products or calling it “hashish oil.” But don’t be fooled. If you’ll be able to’t find “cannabidiol,” “broad-spectrum” or “full-spectrum” on the ingredient listing, the product you’re about to purchase is not CBD oil, but rather hemp seed oil. When trying to find CBD oil or hemp oil, wanting at the elements is key. CBD oil derived from hemp should say so in the elements record. If you reside in a state or country that has legalized hashish might discover oils which are derived from excessive THC strains.
Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil - Know What Are They
Both hemp-derived CBD oil and hemp oil have no intoxicating psychoactive results as a result of they comprise lower than zero.3 % THC. There’s no danger of experiencing paranoia both, nor a threat of overdose. Because of their low THC content material, CBD oil and hemp oil are authorized and secure deals to purchase online or in brick-and-mortar shops. One of the basic variations between hemp oil and CBD oil is that the latter contains many compounds that make up the hemp plant, from the leaves to the stalks and the flowers. In contrast, producers extract hemp oil from the seeds of the Cannabis Sativa plant.

Once the hemp oil will get extracted from the hemp seeds, the oil accommodates a mix of all the cannabinoids discovered in the hemp plant. Just as another plant-based oil , the hemp oil is rich in helpful fatty acids, minerals, and nutritional vitamins. To get the most out of its advantages, hemp oil can be utilized as a food supplement.

CBD Oil vs. Hemp Oil: How to Tell the Difference – Santa Clarita Valley Signal

CBD Oil vs. Hemp Oil: How to Tell the Difference.

Posted: Wed, 24 Feb 2021 08:00:00 GMT [source]


There are many elements that contribute to the value of hemp oil, such as the standard of the hemp oil seeds and its extraction process. If you’re trying forward to experiencing the benefits of CBD oil, you ought to be able to shell out a big amount of cash as this product often prices more than hemp oil. The price of CBD oil varies per model but the average price of this product will land somewhere between $0.05 to $zero.20 per mg. CBD is made by extracting oils from the stalks, leaves, and flowers of the hemp plant itself. When ingested or put under your tongue , CBD might enhance emotional stability and psychological consciousness.
report as standard, and plenty of CBD manufacturers also do the identical. This implies new products that when it comes to shopping for oil on-line, you’ll be able to have your work reduce out for you.

Know About Lip Eczema and How to Soothe It


Rather than species, these are broad designations that discuss with the use and purpose of the plant. CBD stimulates the manufacturing of the cannabinoids, restoring stability and improving the bodily and mental situation of the physique. This includes noticeable improvements in conduct, lowered chronic ache and anxiety, feeling calmer, improved eating habits and extra. The endocannabinoid system is liable for maintaining your body in homeostasis. secure checkout This is the process of keeping your bodily functions in normal range affecting your temper, emotions, appetite, sleep patterns and the conventional function of the hormones. Our bodies have the power to provide cannabinoids that govern the cannabinoid system.

Like CBD oil, Hemp oil additionally contains no THC so there isn’t any threat of a high. Hemp seed oil can also be popularly used for cooking at low heat or making selfmade dressings and condiments.

Does CBD Really Help With Your Appetite?


The oil can come from any plant that’s in the cannabis genus, but hemp oil only comes from industrial hemp. Hemp oil is industrially produced and doesn’t have a excessive amount of psychoactive substances, so it won’t trigger you to get excessive, but has different medicinal properties. With Hemp Oil & CBD Oil being fully different substances, they’re used for fully various things. CBD can be extracted from the cannabis plant while hemp oil can solely be extracted from the hemp plant. Both are non-intoxicating and are thought-about completely protected for human consumption with no recreational uses. Other common effects of CBD oil and hemp oil are lack of appetite and dry mouth or just an disagreeable feeling disagreeable after digesting, however these cross with time. Hemp is derived from the former and has low levels of THC however high levels of CBD.

Any testimonials or product evaluations supplied by our customers usually are not the views of Love CBD Health LTD and should not be taken as advice or fact. The compound in the CBD oil can improve the general well-being of people. It helps users preserve homeostasis or the chemical steadiness in the body by stimulating the endocannabinoid system and interacting with its core receptors generally known as CB1 and CB2. After being extracted, CBD oil gets suspended in a service oil like MCT oil, grapeseed oil, and olive oil. Hemp seed oil is often infused with CBD oil so users can get the best of both worlds. The golden commonplace is CO2 extraction, because it ensures that your CBD extract is potent and freed from any poisonous solvents.

The Gamma-Linolenic Acid are usually being used to help the growth of the user’s hair, pores and skin, and nails. This signifies that the properties of hemp seed oil gained’t be the identical as CBD oil properties. Hemp oil will not be the most suitable choice as a CBD supply, as it is void of any cannabinoids. However, they comprise many useful nutrients that would be beneficial if incorporated into your every day health routine. Both CBD and hemp oil come from the same species of the cannabis plant, Cannabis Sativa or also known as hemp. Another similarity is that neither product causes psychoactive results as they don’t comprise any vital levels of Tetrahydrocannabinol . Mature hemp crops used in CBD oil produce cannabinoids like CBD and THC, whereas hemp seeds like these used in hemp seed oil don’t produce these cannabinoids.
Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil - Know What Are They
Users of hemp seed oil might not get pleasure from the benefits of the entourage impact. However, they will nonetheless obtain the helpful nutrients of fatty acids like linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-three). The hemp seed oil additionally accommodates protein, presents vitamin E and different well being-enhancing minerals, corresponding to calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sulphur, and zinc.
The Max Potency tincture is among the strongest on the market, containing a complete of 80 milligrams of CBD per serving—2,four hundred milligrams in complete. It can also be produced from higher-THC marijuana crops in states the place the vegetation are legal. But it’s produced using the flowers, leaves, and stems of the plant, not the seeds.

Interestingly sufficient, hemp seed oil can really still comprise trace quantities of THC, however not anywhere close to the amount it would take so that you can get high or fail a drug check. We are pleased to reply any questions you have about buying oils, and can help you to find the right merchandise to fulfill your needs. This ingredient is a natural ingredient from hemp or industrial cannabis. The oil has a lot of cannabidiol in it, and is produced from the leaves, stalks and blooms of hemp as a substitute of the seeds.
Cannabinoids assist your body in many more methods than hemp oil does. These benefits embody lowering irritation, serving to to manage persistent pain, and treating psychological circumstances like insomnia, despair, and nervousness. The first difference you’ll notice in hemp oil vs. CBD oil is the part of the hashish sativa plant that these oils come from. The different components of the plant have totally different chemical compounds inside them. Where the stalks, flowers, and leaves are excessive in CBD content, the seeds only have very small quantities of CBD. Hemp is a subspecies of the Cannabis sativa plant and is cultivated for its leaves, seeds, and fibre. Like marijuana, hemp accommodates a myriad of cannabinoids — however, these cannabinoids aren’t psychoactive.
Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil - Know What Are They
There is at present a drug available on the market containing CBD for this specific function. The drug, epidiolex, reduces the frequency of seizures in folks identified with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.
#Springtime Paints can also be produced from hemp oil and are extra environmentally friendly than paints which are produced from petroleum. Hemp oil is an ingredient in biodiesel fuel, much like other vegetable oils.
  • Interestingly sufficient, hemp seed oil can truly still contain trace amounts of THC, however not wherever near the quantity it will take for you to get high or fail a drug test.
  • But, earlier than you begin purchasing make sure to also research the model that you’re shopping for from.
  • This sort of oil is commonly used in cosmetics and topical skin remedies.
  • It’s most likely protected to say that you just’re taking a look at CBD oil when the label doesn’t embrace “hemp” specifically.

CBD oil, or cannabidiol oil, is extracted from the hashish sativa plant using the flowers, leaves, and stalks. There is no THC in CBD oil, so it doesn’t present the high that you may count on from the hashish plant. These cannabinoids work along with your body’s pure endocannabinoid system. The downside that’s surfaced is that many individuals don’t know the difference between the two and suppose they can be utilized interchangeably. However, these two oils are very totally different in make-up and are each used for very various things.
This bill allowed the creation of industrialized hemp , and while some medical marijuana legal guidelines still apply, the hashish compound, cannabidiol , was legalized. The compound was recognized by interacting flawlessly with the human body’s endocannabinoid system . Hemp oil is an antioxidant, however you wouldn’t take it to alleviate the signs of a mental health situation. It is the active ingredient, CBD, that has been proven to be probably the greatest pure pain-killers. So good actually that it’s changing into commonplace to see CBD merchandise being used in contact sports activities similar to MMA, boxing, rugby and in the NFL.

However, as a result of they don’t comprise many cannabinoids as does CBD, hemp seed oil is mainly used for different reasons in comparison with CBD oil. For this cause, we’ve created this final guide to explain what hemp oil and CBD oil are, their similarities and their variations. By the time you’ve completed reading, you will know every thing you have to know.
Don’t get confuse, try to decide between each depending on your need and its benefits. There are few different phrases associated to CBD oil, they’re broad spectrum, phytocannabinoid-rich, isolate, and broad spectrum. thecbdmagazine.comis not intended to diagnose, deal with, cure, or stop any disease and is not meant as a substitute for info from well being care practitioners. Over the past couple of years, CBD has rapidly grown in recognition. Boasting the flexibility to help with numerous circumstances , and to increase total nicely-being, the demand for it has elevated massively.

The reason folks take CBD oil is to concentrate on the beneficial effects of the cannabinoids. CBD-infused oil will show all of the components used that make up the product. If it incorporates CBD isolate, then it’s not full-spectrum CBD oil. Conversely, if it accommodates CBD-rich hemp oil, full-spectrum CBD oil or broad-spectrum CBD oil, then, by widespread sense, it’s a full or broad-spectrum product. Raw hemp extract accommodates multiple cannabinoids and substances that are similar to CBD but do not fairly have the identical properties, for example, terpenes. Some CBD oil, although, accommodates the same pure stability of CBD and these different cannabinoids discovered from the original hemp plant.
While individuals think they are the identical, it couldn’t be farther from the truth. First, they are produced from totally opposing elements of the vegetation. Second, they provide totally different advantages and, therefore, have totally different uses. Let’s get down to the primary variations between CBD oil and hemp oil you need to know. It’s simple to confuse CBD oil and hemp oil as a result of more recently, with the CBD craze,CBD companies have used the time period hemp oil to market their CBD products. This can actually complicate the whole hemp space when it comes to the distinction between CBD oil and hemp oil.
Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil - Know What Are They
Cannabis is wealthy in over 80 plant compounds referred to as cannabinoids, which are thought to be useful for the way in which they work together with your body’s endocannabinoid system. Easily change the products or shipping date in your upcoming Scheduled Orders. Automatically re-order your favorite products on your schedule. Hemp oil is nice for helping to moisturize the pores and skin and to alleviate the results of issues like psoriasis, eczema, extreme dryness, and more. The capability of CBD oil to reduce inflammation is beneficial for the management of many various situations. This applies to folks diagnosed with diabetes, people with pimples, people who undergo from epilepsy or Alzheimer’s Disease, and lots of extra. People identified with arthritis have begun to make use of topical creams infused with CBD oil often together with massages.
In truth, there are some common questions about CBD oil vs. hemp oil because each merchandise are extracted from the hemp plant, yet have very totally different results on the physique. Because it’s filled with healthy fats, hemp seed oil is usually added to food and even used as a cooking oil. Hemp seeds, which have a mild nutty style, can be added to meals for a nutritional enhance, as well. To know the difference between CBD and hemp oil, you first need to know precisely what hemp oil is. While “hemp oil” could also be used as a shorthand for hemp seed oil, they’re actually not the identical factor.

Both CBD and hemp come from the identical source, which is Cannabis sativa. But, many manufacturers and retailers don’t inform their consumers which a part of the plant they used to create their products. Hemp oil – It is bent from cold-press method of extraction by utilizing seeds of hemp plant.
If you’ve ever seen a cold press juicer or juice extractor, the method is almost equivalent. This method helps preserves the raw, nutritious contents of the seeds.
Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil - Know What Are They
Hemp extracts which contain parts of the plant, different cannabinoids, plant waxes, flavonoids, and terpenes. This is often the place the confusion lies, as the compound cannabidiol can be extracted from high THC strains of cannabis – referred to as marijuana. THC stands for Tetrahydrocannabinol the psychoactive plant compound in cannabis that causes the ‘high’ and is broadly prohibited.
If you don’t know a lot about cannabidiol oil or hemp oil, it may be a little bit difficult to understand what they’re and the variations between the two. These different extraction methods require varied pieces of kit to accomplish. Furthermore, the color of each merchandise are totally different–CBD oil tends to have a transparent to darkish gold hue, whereas hemp usually has a dark to light green shade. Extracting CBD from the Cannabis sativa plant might yield pure outcomes. In different words, you’re not going to get something but CBD from the flowers and leaves of the hashish plant. Conversely, extracting hemp from the seeds can yield hint quantities of tetrahydrocannabinol . Take notice that CBD comes from the leaves and flowers of the hashish plant, whereas hemp tends to be within the seeds.
Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil - Know What Are They
A examine additionally demonstrated no side effects when folks took up to 1,500 mg per day for a month. With specialized extraction processes such as carbon dioxide extraction, manufacturers can draw out an extract rich in CBD and other components.
The greatest place to start out is to know the difference between hemp and marijuana. Also, growing specific strains of outdoor cannabis vegetation doesn’t want the identical strict consideration to humidity, lighting, and temperature that CBD requires. CBD producers are inclined to extract this natural substance in rigorously-managed and managed circumstances. It’s as a result of the cannabis vegetation need to be in environments with exact light exposures to create excessive-high quality flowers and leaves. Yes, value can be a first rate indication of a excessive-high quality product, however it doesn’t mean that you’re going to buy one of the best CBD oil in the marketplace should you take a look at nothing however the fee. THC tends to be a significant component of a number of marijuana strains. This compound can be liable for giving customers thoughts-altering effects.

Hemp is a subset of Cannabis sativa, and has been bred to have low THC and high CBD. As mentioned previously, it’s primarily used for industrial purposes and biofuels, though its low THC content makes it perfect for each CBD oil and hemp oil. I’ve explained the essential variations between hemp oil and CBD oil. With that being stated, to enhance the general well-being of the physique, I would suggest taking hemp oil. For a extra particular health issue, taking CBD oil may be more beneficial.
2018 Farm Bill opened the door for business to start out using CBD products so long as there was no THC current, as THC is the excessive-inducing chemical found in hashish Sativa. The cause that CBD oil has turn out to be so in style is that it could provide advantages without any serious unwanted effects or potential for addiction.
Differences Between CBD Oil and Hemp Oil - Know What Are They
In the case of plain jane hemp oil, users choose it as a dietary complement as a substitute of a multi-vitamin because of its vital dietary components. Hemp oil might enhance your ldl cholesterol, affect triglycerides and handle low-density lipoprotein ldl cholesterol. Both hemp seed oil and CBD oil may be found at your native pharmacy, grocery retailer, and well being food stores. However, most of the time you can see that they are usually offered in different areas. The extra reputable CBD oil manufacturers may be bought on-line instantly from their web site. A lot of pharmacies, and even corner stores these days, have started carrying a few of the extra respectable CBD oil manufacturers. If a product claims to be made with premium CBD oil, it’s most likely not going to be low-cost.
Here are a number of the several types of CBD oil available and the differences between them. The CBD is removed on its own or with different substances that occur naturally. To help understand which is legal and which is not, the terms hemp and marijuana are used. The distinguishing issue that determines legality comes right down to CBD, the substance used for CBD oil and THC, the substance that will get you excessive.

About the Author